Although a relatively new science, architectural acoustics permeates every walk of modern life. Correct application of the principles of. architectural - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. ACOUSTICS. architectural acoustics book written at a level appropriate for an engineering introduction to architectural acoustics, a class on noise and vibration control in.

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PDF | On Jan 1, , Ahmed Elkhateeb and others published Architectural Acoustics, Theory and Application. PDF | This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include. BUILDING UTILITIES 3 ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS and LIGHTING ACOUSTICS ACOUSTICS - the science of sound and vibration which refers to the.

Also covered is the theory loudspeaker systems and sound system modeling as well as in-depth presentation of computer modeling, ray tracing and auralization.

Since , Marshall Long has been engaged in acoustical engineering consulting as principal of the firm he founded. Based in California, USA, Marshall Long Acoustics, has established a national and international reputation, completing over 3, projects in architectural acoustics, noise and vibration control, environmental impact assessment, and audio visual design.

He has published numerous papers and articles in the field of acoustics.

The author has recently been awarded a US patent on the recording and reproduction of three-dimensional sound. For me the major feature of Architectural Acoustics is the comprehensive range of useful information compiled into one book. The book is a valuable new contribution and seems to be a bargain for the immense amount of material it includes.

It is voluminous, full of clear figures, and written in a rigorous but comfortable style. Long is an established consultant in Los Angeles with a thirty year plus practice in most aspects of architectural and structural acoustics. In this book he literally pours forth the broad extent and depth of his knowledge. Audio Eng. Its main value is painstakingly bringing together much useful data and knowledge from a multitude of reputable sources.

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If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Webpages Books Journals. Marshall Long. Academic Press. Published Date: Page Count: Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices.

Greek theatres generally seat patrons in a semi-circle, or fan shaped placement, while seating in classical Roman arenas exist in an elliptical or circular arrangement. Elliptical shapes in architecture produce some interesting acoustical properties. Sound waves emitted at one focus of the ellipse will be reflected off of the interior walls and converge at the other focus point.

This is the same principle behind parabolic whispering dishes.

Table of contents

This steep angle was implemented to allow a clear view of the stage for each audience member. Consequently, this angle created favorable acoustic conditions.

The steep raking creates a shorter path for the direct sound, with few interferences in that direct path from source to receiver. There are The steep raked seating at Aspendos relatively few reflected sounds and a very short reverberation time in theatres of this design. The short time interval from source to receiver improves the clarity of the sound. This was absolutely necessary for the audience to understand the lines in the performances. As shown in table 1, people absorb a great amount of sound energy.

The presence of an audience has a major affect on the sound quality in any acoustic system. The presence of large absorbing material can reduce the intensity of the sound as it moves from source to receiver. The steeply raked seating in these amphitheatres helped to reduce this factor. The rows of people are arranged such that there is a clear path from the stage to each person; other audience members do not interfere with this path.

The path is relatively free from absorbing agents. Epidaurus sits atop a mountain 4 Another contributing factor to the acoustical properties of these theatres is the location.

Background noise is another factor that can greatly influence the audiences listening experience. The Greek theatre at Epidaurus is located on a mountaintop, as is the theatre at Aspendos. As well as providing a breathtaking view, these locations were beneficial because they were located away from the noise of the main cities.

The gothic period gave rise to many of the famous cathedrals found in Western Europe. The huge volume of these buildings creates a great time period for the path of the sound wave from source to receiver, a large reverberation time.

The reverberation affects the clarity of sounds. Spoken prayers in spaces with these large reverberation times would run together and become somewhat lyrical.

As a result, over time some of the spoken prayers became chants that are used in services today. There are five domes on the top of the cathedral, one atop each end of the cross and one over the very center. A dome focuses sound because of its interior parabolic surface. The sound waves are reflected off of the curved surface and the energy converges at the focus point of the structure.

The qualities of a sound in a domed structure vary depending on the curvature of the dome and the coefficient of absorption of the material of the inside of the dome.

Domes can be designed to control the echo affect, to either hinder it by using an absorbent material or to lengthen the reverberation time by using a more reflective material. Each dome is fashioned a little differently and affects a sound in different ways.

One of the domes is said to produce brassy tones while the opposite dome produces silver tones. Composers used to compose music especially for a specific cathedral to take advantage of the acoustical nuances of the building.

He would have the audience sit under the main dome and have sounds projected from two of the domes on either side to experience the different affects of both domes.

Architects created the final design elements of these opera houses by troubleshooting problems of the original designs. This method prompted creative engineering and some rather interesting solutions to common problems in acoustics. It was typical of opera houses of that time period. It had seats arranged in a horseshoe pattern surrounding a central stage; the orchestra was placed in a section in directly in front of the stage.

The sounds, particularly dialogue lacked intensity. This problem was exaggerated by the area of high absorption found in the opera houses; these theatres were decorated with a lot of cloth furnishings, which left too few reflective surfaces. The solution to this problem was very inventive as well as effective. The construction team dug a substantial trough underneath the stage and filled it with water.

Recent research in the field of acoustics has become more focused on the audience experience. Scientists are concerned with the feelings that the listener experiences during a performance. Acoustic consultant for the construction of the Philharmonic, Leo L.

Architectural Acoustics

Beranek, wanted the listener to feel a sense of intimacy, no matter where they are sitting relative to the performance. He made this one of the main criteria when designing the Philharmonic. In his own research, Beranek found that actually the initial-time-delay-gap, and not the reverberation time determines the perceived amount of intimacy. The initial-time-delay-gap is the time between the source and the first reflection; supposedly, a smaller initial-time-delay-gap, like around 20 ms would produce a more intimate experience for the listener.

The way to achieve this result is to move surfaces closer to the source, so that the sound wave does not have to travel so far to reach the first reflective surface, decreasing the time delay.

The surfaces need to be close to the source, but should not interfere with the sounds direct path to the receivers. The solution for the Philharmonic as in many other modern theatres and concert halls was to suspend reflective panels from the ceiling, angled so that the sound would project into the audience. The delicate science of acoustics as applied to architecture is ever changing.

As long as music continues to progress and evolve, the criteria of the listening environment will need to advance as well. The design process that began so many centuries ago will continue for as long as music remains indispensable in our culture.Stretansky Recital Hall Susquehanna University Multipurpose performance spaces are often built to save the money it would entail to build several dedicated spaces.

Saint Mark Basilica. Price, John. One of the most interesting applications of this idea is in the construction of domes as resonators to specifically distort or channel a sound. The solution to this problem was very inventive as well as effective. It was typical of opera houses of that time period.

Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition

Architectural Acoustics also includes more advanced chapters on specific design problems, including treatment of multifamily dwellings, office buildings, sound reinforcement systems, rooms for music, multipurpose rooms, auditoriums, sanctuaries, and studios and listening rooms. Reverberation occurs when sound energy remains after the energy source has stopped producing sound. Resonance is an additional concept that applies to the science of architectural acoustics.