Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 2 () . PL/SQL Feature for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (). Optimize PL/SQL performance with tools and techniques such as PL/Scope and the PL/SQL hierarchical profiler. Explore datatypes, conditional and sequential. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O'Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O'Reilly. Media, Inc. Oracle PL/SQL Programing, the image.
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Oracle PL/SQL by example / Benjamin Rosenzweig, Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov . p. cm. ISBN (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. PL/SQL (Computer program. Oracle SQL & PL/SQL Optimization for. Developers Note: You can automatically generate documentation (HTML, PDF, CHM,) from the. the heart of much of Oracle's software is PL/SQL—a programming language that PL/SQL is integrated tightly into Oracle's SQL language: you can execute.
An IN parameter is passed by reference, though it can be changed by the inactive program. The program assigns the parameter value and that value is returned to the calling program.
That initial value may or may not be modified by the called program. Any changes made to the parameter are returned to the calling program by default by copying but - with the NOCOPY hint - may be passed by reference.
The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body.
The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available.
Oracle PL/SQL Language
The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation.
Using package variables one can declare session level scoped variables since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope. Main article: Database trigger A database trigger is like a stored procedure that Oracle Database invokes automatically whenever a specified event occurs.
Unlike a stored procedure, you can enable and disable a trigger, but you cannot explicitly invoke it. While a trigger is enabled, the database automatically invokes it—that is, the trigger fires—whenever its triggering event occurs. While a trigger is disabled, it does not fire. You specify the triggering event in terms of triggering statements, and the item they act on.
The trigger is said to be created on or defined on the item—which is either a table, a view, a schema, or the database. You also specify the timing point, which determines whether the trigger fires before or after the triggering statement runs and whether it fires for each row that the triggering statement affects.
If the trigger is created on a table or view, then the triggering event is composed of DML statements, and the trigger is called a DML trigger.
If the trigger is created on a schema or the database, then the triggering event is composed of either DDL or database operation statements, and the trigger is called a system trigger. Datatypes: -- data types are of four types 1. Faculty: Mr. Conditional 2. Iterative Control Structures or loops Conditional Control Structures: Using a particular condition controling the number of executions is possible using conditional control structures.
Loops are used to execute a single statement for 'N' number of times. There are 3 types of loops: 1. While loop 3.
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For loop or Numeric loop. Syntax: for loopcounter in lowerbound.. Cursor Types: 1. Note: implicit cursors always stores the attributes of the recently executed Ex1: begin delete from emp; sql statement.
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Explicit cursors are always defined only on 'select' queries and the select query may refere any no. If the query retrieves 0 Explicit Cursors 1. Controlled by user 2. Only on select queries 3.
Exception is not raised when the implicit cursors processed by the cursor so far ex: 1,2,3, Performance is better than 4. Poor Performance compared to 5.
Your program attempts to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized atomically null object. A cursor must be closed before it can be reopened. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers.
So, your program cannot open that cursor inside the loop. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually, so when that happens, no exception is raised.
For example, when an open host cursor variable is passed to a stored subprogram, the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. An arithmetic, conversion, truncation, or sizeconstraint error occurs.
For example, when your program selects a column value into a character Faculty: Mr. Procedures 2. NOTE: Do not specify any size to datatype.
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No return clause in the header 3.You learn about the database schema and the tables that the course uses. You can connect to any target Oracle database schema by using standard Oracle database authentication.
Ans: Oracle 7.
NOTE: Do not specify any size to datatype. Datatypes: -- data types are of four types 1. If the trigger is created on a table or view, then the triggering event is composed of DML statements, and the trigger is called a DML trigger.