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For most of its long history philosophy has had more than its share of dangerous people armed with dangerous ideas. On the strength of their. Ben Dupré. 50 Philosophy Ideas You Really Need To Know. Many of the required readings will be provided as pdf files, which you can. 50 Philosophy Classics. “This book explains and discusses briefly, but with remarkable lucidity, some of the ideas of fifty philosophical thinkers from ancient.

In the story. Problems for behaviourism and functionalism The central idea behind behaviourism is that mental phenomena can be translated. A Space Odyssey. Its importance today is rather that it spawned a doctrine that is probably the most widely accepted theory of mind — functionalism. So to say that someone is in pain. For his collaboration with Stanley Kubrick. The problem. To use a computer analogy. And so it went on — and on and on … Unbelievable. But imagine for a moment a brain transplant — an operation we can envisage being within reach of future technology — in which your brain is transferred into my body.

After two years. Identity crises Which is the original? The car Theo has. It matters — is it just to punish the year-old for something he did 70 years earlier? Should a doctor allow the year-old to die because that wish was expressed 40 years earlier by a supposedly previous version of himself? This is the problem of personal identity. It probably depends who you ask.

I am linked to a particular body which is a single and continuous organic entity. Our intuition is surely that you have a new body. People change enormously over a lifetime. Then bigger stuff started to go wrong — first the clutch. He thought it was a copy. It seems our intuitions in this area are often strong but conflicting. Or is it still the same car?

The tale of the car of Theo — or. It started off with little things — a door lock needed replacing. So are they the same person? If they are. Physically and psychologically. So just what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for a person at one time being the same person at a later time?

Animals and brain transplants The commonsense view is probably that personal identity is a matter of biology: I am now who I was in the past because I am the same living organism. And there were plenty of knocks along the way. In considering what makes me me. This move fits our intuition regarding the brain transplant case but still does not quite do the job.

I am my mind. Based on this view. While we may be uncertain how brain activity gives rise to consciousness or mental activity. This consideration has led some philosophers to retreat from body to brain — to claim identity is linked not to the whole body but to the brain.

My sense of being me would not be much shaken if the total sum of those experiences. Our concern is with what we suppose emanates from the brain. I go where my mind goes. But if this intuition is right. Suppose this records your physical composition down to the last atom and then transfers this data to some remote location say from London.

But if we stop thinking in terms of this substantial self. Psychological continuity Taking a psychological approach to the question of personal identity. It is the dominant theory among contemporary philosophers. I remain me. Getting your self straight Such mixed intuitions may come from asking the wrong questions.

But suppose the transporter failed and neglected to carry out the annihilation in London. Not all and perhaps none of these need extend from start to finish. Suppose he still remembered his flogging when he took the standard.

According to the continuity account. The idea of psychological continuity as the main criterion of personal identity over time comes from John Locke. You are in Moonbase 1. David Hume drew attention to the elusiveness of the self. All is well — provided you adhere to the psychological continuity thesis: In this case. A brave officer was once flogged for robbing an orchard while a schoolboy. While it is natural to imagine a substantial self that is the subject of these thoughts. We assume our personal survival in such thought experiments somehow depends on finding a place for this self.

You essentially the fund of thoughts.

The outcome is that there are now two human beings. Maybe the rest of you — the zombies — are normal and I am the freak? But unlike you and me. I am not at all sure about you … any of you. They look just the same as you and me.

Is that sufficient evidence on which to base my belief that you have a mind like mine?

To put it more colourfully. The glazed expression. I know that I have a mind. I observe innumerable similarities. There is an appealing aura of common sense about the argument from analogy.

Can I ever tell. You will also meet mutants. In the unlikely event of our being called upon to defend our belief in the minds of others. And they even have minds! From zombies to mutants Zombies are not the only guests at conferences on the philosophy of mind. The argument is inductive.

More generally. Mutants are particularly useful when it comes to looking at a different aspect of the other minds problem: Like zombies. Given that we are so similar in other ways … The most common ways of tackling the problem of other minds.

So I can infer. There is no limit on how different mutants can be: Or how intense your feeling of pain is? Or that your perception of red is the same as mine? With such questions a whole new area of debate opens up. And that should cause us to look seriously at our conceptions of the mind.

The problem with minds and consciousness is that they remain so mysterious. Nobody is trying to persuade anybody that people are in fact zombies. Cartesian dualism see The mind—body problem drives a huge metaphysical wedge between mental and physical events. If our theory of mind can demystify the relation between mental and physical phenomena.

To reduce the risk of this kind of mistake. It is true that all of us even philosophers. In this way. It is rather that ways we may have of thinking about minds and their relation to bodies leave wide open the possibility of zombies. As Wittgenstein remarked. The usual criticism of the argument is that it involves inference or extrapolation from a single instance my own mind.

Tilting at windmills? On the face of it. That is a good reason for looking critically at dualism. But to reject the philosophical problem on that basis is to miss the point. The point. To this extent the problem of other minds can be seen as another symptom of the more general mind—body problem. AD Do animals feel pain? I have remarked. Moore in his Principia Ethica I mean the impossibility to derive non-tautological ethical rules … from statements of facts.

Hume evidently thinks that we cannot and many thinkers have agreed with him. For as this ought.

Dupré Ben. 50 philosophy ideas you really need to know

Moore alleged. Victims of natural. Or put briefly. To confuse matters further. I meet with no proposition that is not connected with an ought. Hume himself was not unaware of the significance of his observation. On the other hand. On the one hand. Value in a value-free world The problem that Hume has highlighted is due in part to two strong but conflicting convictions that many of us share.

The logically unbridgeable gap between fact and value that Hume seems to open up casts doubt over the very status of ethical claims and thus lies at the heart of moral philosophy. An absolutist holds that certain actions are right or wrong under any circumstances.

The latter position is basically equivalent to that of non-cognitivism see above. The best-known consequentialist system is utilitarianism see The experience machine. A deontologist considers certain actions to be intrinsically right or wrong. A subjectivist holds that value is grounded not in external reality but either in our beliefs about reality or in our emotional reactions to it. Kantian ethics see The categorical imperative is the most important deontological system.

A non-cognitivist holds that morality is not a matter of knowledge. Normative ethics focuses on the ethical standards or norms on which moral conduct is based.

The following gives a thumbnail sketch of some of the most commonly encountered of these ethical positions. In the former case a cognitive position. Objectivism holds that ethical concepts are metaphysically real and hence is largely coextensive with moral realism. A consequentialist maintains that the rightness or wrongness of actions can be assessed purely by reference to their effectiveness in bringing about certain desirable ends or states of affairs.

Philosophers have taken an array of positions on all these questions. At the most general level. In such cases truth tracks sincerity: And there are of course countless other examples of such cultural diversity.

The out-and-out relativist would have to say that one thing was right for some people but not others.. And just as we would not try to persuade people to stop liking tomatoes or criticize them for doing so.

In matters of taste. It is what the majority then and there happen to like. I cannot be wrong — it is true for me. They replied that they would not do it for any money in the world.

They uttered a cry of horror and forbade him to mention such a dreadful thing. Each group has its own code of customs and traditions. In the end we would surely agree with Herodotus.

It is from cases such as these that the relativist argues that in general there are no absolute or universal truths: So following this analogy. And in the case of slavery. We may even take issue with ourselves over time: I can change my mind over a moral question.

We might blanch a little at the prospect of eating our parents. This failure of relativism to take any serious account of aspects that are so clearly characteristic of our actual moral lives is usually seen as a decisive blow against the thesis. Taken to an extreme. This line of argument has led many to associate relativism with tolerance and open-mindedness.

But this is a caricature: This benign image suggests that progress towards understanding is to be made through collaboration. A perspective has to be a perspective on something. But it is precisely this common ground that is denied by radical relativism. Getting knowledge in perspective The absurdity of full-blown relativism and the perils of its widespread adoption as a political mantra have meant that insights offered by a more temperate form of relativism are sometimes overlooked.

The self-refuting nature of full-blown relativism was spotted in its infancy by Plato. Is the claim that all claims are relative itself relative? The lesson of all this is that rational discussion depends on sharing some common ground.

Running rings round relativism Strong or radical relativism — the idea that all claims moral and everything else are relative — quickly ties itself in knots. The most important lesson of relativism is that knowledge itself is perspectival: This point is often explained in terms of conceptual schemes or frameworks: But the fact that we cannot step back from.

In general. And this kind of incoherence rapidly infects everything else. Anything goes? June Over the last few decades the idea of relativism has gained a political and social significance that has stretched its original meaning to and beyond breaking point.

So the opposing sides have lined up. On the other side. And under the semblance of freedom it becomes a prison for each one. At least. Surely such a code of ethical rules. Probably the gravest of these is the so-called Euthyphro dilemma. It is on the horns of this dilemma usually expressed in monotheistic terms that the divine command theory is caught.

In the minds of millions of people morality is inextricably tied up with religion: God imposes on its worshippers a set of moral injunctions. More than any other area. Taking the first part first: God is redundant. The first premise. God must exist. If God commands what is good because it is good. More promising. Lost in action? The biggest danger facing the divine command theory is the risk of losing its divine commander: Not an easy choice for those seeking to make God the guarantor or sanction of their ethics.

So does the other alternative fare any better? Neither alternative is very palatable to the divine command theorist. And even allowing that morality does exist independently of us. But this line of attack risks circularity or incoherence. God might have ordained that killing is OK or even obligatory. At least in the role of moral lawmaker. This line of reasoning is unlikely to win over an opponent. But if Godness and goodness are one and the same. So we could go straight to the source and happily shoot the messenger.

So when it comes to morality. On this reading religious observance adds up to little more than blind obedience to an arbitrary authority. To take a notorious example from the Bible. But most people today would regard such a view as morally abhorrent. Put like this. Struck by the sheer oddity of finding such a property in the world the supposedly value-free world described by science.

Take a putatively moral fact: And he wrote upon the tablets the words of the covenant. We can describe an act of killing in minute detail. Some of these are scientific. Such a picture may appeal to common sense. But what further property or quality are we adding to the picture when we ascribe wrongness to it? Here is a matter of fact. There is no other matter of fact in the case.

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In whichever way you take it. You never can find it. Moral disagreement is apparently impossible. Reason is essential in understanding the consequences of our actions and in rationally planning how to achieve our moral aims. Examine it in all lights.

Something more sophisticated is needed. The vice entirely escapes you. The big problem for emotivists is to bring their theory into some sort of alignment with the way that we actually think about and conduct our moral discourse. This discourse presupposes an external world of objective values: It lies in yourself.

But this is too simple. But according to the emotivist. His famous plea for a subjectivist account of morality appears in his Treatise of Human Nature: Wilful murder. The emotivist may allow that deliberation and disagreement are possible over our background beliefs and the context of our actions. The logical connections between moral assertions themselves appear to be missing. Success in this respect is considered to be one of the chief recommendations of a rival subjectivist theory known as prescriptivism.

Moral disagreement.

Probably the most important of these alternatives is prescriptivism. The staunch response to this is simply to bite the bullet: I am thereby committed to holding that that injunction should be obeyed by anyone including myself in relevantly similar circumstances i.

Taking as its starting point the insight that moral terms have a prescriptive element — they tell us what to do or how to behave — prescriptivism proposes that the essence of moral terms is that they are action-guiding.

Prescriptivism The most common criticism of emotivism is that it fails to capture the logic of ethical discourse — the characteristic patterns of reasoning and rational argument that underlie it. In this way prescriptivism apparently allows more space for disagreement and debate than emotivism does.

Many attempts have been made to bring the emotivist picture closer to our realist-sounding ethical discourse. I must comply with the golden rule. The only possible move is to shoot down the plane.

Should you do it? Conjoined Siamese twins are both certain to die within months unless they are surgically separated. Hard cheese for the Fat Owl of the Remove. Do you kill patient A with his permission. No other donors are available.

So is he right to sacrifice Bunter? Does the end saving several innocent lives justify the means taking one innocent life? An airliner carrying passengers is hurtling out of control towards a densely populated area. Apart from the unpleasantness of being tossed out of the balloon. There really are only two options: The balloon was now falling faster towards the sea.

But everything had already been thrown out of the basket — all that was left was himself and the six boys. The necessary operation offers excellent prospects of one twin living a reasonably healthy and fulfilled life but will result in the death of the other twin.

There is no time to evacuate the area and the impact of the plane is certain to kill thousands. Do you name someone — anyone — to save the children? How do you decide who? It was perfectly clear that only Bunter was of sufficient bulk to save the day. As it happens. His heart and kidneys are a perfect match for patients B and C. A Gestapo officer rounds up 10 children and threatens to shoot them unless you reveal the identity and whereabouts of a spy.

Quelch can save himself and the five other boys. Do you proceed? Do you do so even if the parents do not give their consent? Patient A is terminally ill and certain to die within a week. There is no food of any kind, no chance of escaping on foot, and no prospect of a rescue party reaching you for several weeks, by which time you will all have starved to death.

The meat from one passenger will sustain the others until help arrives. Do you kill and eat one of your companions? How do you choose? An ethical divide Such decisions involving life and death are not, of course, merely the stuff of fiction. In real life, people sometimes find themselves in situations where it is necessary to allow one or a few innocent individuals to die, or in extreme cases even to kill them, in order to save several or many innocent lives.

These are cases that test our intuitions to the limit, wrenching us sharply one way or the other — and sometimes in both directions at the same time. This fundamental uncertainty is mirrored in the very different approaches that philosophers have taken in trying to explain such dilemmas.

The various theories that have been proposed are often seen as sitting on one or other side of a major fault line in ethics — the line that separates duty-based deontological theories from consequence-based consequentialist ones. A consequentialist proposes that the question of whether an action is right or wrong should be determined purely on the basis of its consequences; an action is regarded merely as a means to some desirable end, and its rightness or wrongness is a measure of how effective it is in achieving that end.

The end itself is some state of affairs such as a state of happiness that results from, or is consequent upon, the various actions that contribute to it. In choosing between various available courses of action, consequentialists will merely weigh up the good and bad consequences in each case and make their decisions on that basis. In the Bunter case, for instance, they are likely to judge that the good outcome in terms of innocent lives saved is justification for the taking of one life.

The end justifies the means In a trivial sense, a means can only ever be justified by an end, as the former is by definition a way of achieving the latter; so a means is justified i. Problems can arise — and the maxim could be seen as sinister — when an inappropriate end is chosen and the choice is made in the light of ideology or dogma.

If a political ideologue, for instance, or a religious zealot sets up a particular end as important to the exclusion of all others, it is a short step for their followers to conclude that it is morally acceptable to use any means whatsoever to achieve that end. By contrast, in a deontological system actions are not seen merely as means to an end but as right or wrong in themselves. Actions are thought to have intrinsic value in their own right, not just instrumental value in contributing towards some desirable end.

For instance, the deontologist may rule that killing innocent people is intrinsically wrong: The Billy Bunter case may seem far-fetched, but nasty dilemmas of this kind do sometimes arise in real life. All the cases in this chapter are similar, at least in the ethical questions they raise, to events that actually occurred and are certain to occur again. The best-known consequentialist theory is utilitarianism see The experience machine ; the most influential deontological system is that developed by Kant see The categorical imperative.

AD Superduper neuropsychologists could stimulate your brain so that you would think and feel you were writing a great novel, or making a friend, or reading an interesting book. All the time you would be floating in a tank, with electrodes attached to your brain.

What else can matter to us, other than how our lives feel from the inside? Both describe virtual realities in which a world is simulated in such a way that it is completely indistinguishable, from the inside at least, from real life.

In spite of the obvious attractions of life attached to the experience machine, most people, Nozick thinks, would choose not to be plugged into it. The reality of life is important: Yet, if pleasure were the only thing affecting our well-being, if it were the sole constituent of the good life, surely we would not make this choice, since far more pleasure would be had by being plugged into the experience machine. From this, Nozick infers that there are other things apart from pleasure that we consider intrinsically valuable.

Classical utilitarianism This conclusion is damaging to any hedonistic pleasure-based theory of ethics, and in particular to utilitarianism, at least in the classic formulation given by its founder Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do. Indeed, one of its chief recommendations for Bentham was that it would provide a rational and scientific basis for moral and social decision-making, in contrast to the chaotic and incoherent intuitions on which so-called natural rights and natural law were based.

According to this distinction. Varieties of utilitarianism Utilitarianism is. In the classical hedonic utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill. By supposing that life had no higher end than pleasure. According to direct or act utilitarianism. Rule utilitarianism may thus accord more closely with our common intuitions on moral matters. Higher and lower pleasures Contemporary critics were quick to point out just how narrow a conception of morality Bentham had given.

Some theorists have also proposed extending the scope of utilitarianism beyond human well-being to other forms of sentient life. In the case of utilitarianism. These different approaches typically recognize that human happiness depends not only on pleasure but also on the satisfaction of a wide range of desires and preferences. There are also different views on how utilitarianism is to be applied to actions. Bentham himself.

Download 50 Philosophy Ideas You Really Need To Know 2008

In contrast. More seriously. This accommodation is made at some cost. At the very least. Christina will be thrown off the scent. Christina comes up to you and asks if you know where Mariah is. But in the view of Immanuel Kant — one of the most influential and. This implacable insistence on duty. Christina will find Mariah and kill her. What should you do? Tell the truth or tell a lie? It seems crazy even to ask the question.

Not lying is. If you tell her the truth. The consequences of telling the truth are dreadful. Of course you should lie — a very white lie. If you lie and tell her that you saw Mariah leaving five minutes ago.

The requirement of universality thus rules out certain kinds of conduct on logical grounds. A categorical imperative of this kind.

Such maxims can have the form of categorical imperatives. The nub of the Christina—Mariah case was put to Kant. Act only in accordance with a maxim that you can at the same time will to become a universal law. Suppose I tell you what to do by issuing an order an imperative: Vat origins The classic modern telling of the brain-in-a-vat story above was given by the American philosopher Hilary Putnam in his book Reason, Truth, and History, but the germ of the idea has a much longer history.

Putnams thought experiment is essentially an updated version of a 17th-century horror story the evil demon malin gnie conjured up by the French philosopher Ren Descartes in his Meditations on First Philosophy. Descartess aim was to reconstruct the edifice of human knowledge on unshakeable foundations, for which he adopted his method of doubt, he discarded any beliefs susceptible to the slightest degree of uncertainty.

After pointing out the unreliability of our senses and the confusion created by dreams, Descartes pushed his method of doubt to the limit: I shall suppose that some malicious demon of the utmost power and cunning has employed all his energies in order to deceive me. I shall think that the sky, the air, the earth, colours, shapes, sounds and all external things are merely the delusions of dreams which he has devised to ensnare my judgment.

Amongst the debris of his former beliefs and opinions, Descartes espies a single speck of certainty the cogito on the apparently sure foundation of which he begins his task of reconstruction see Cogito ergo sum.

Unfortunately for Putnam and Descartes, although both are playing devils advocate adopting sceptical positions in order to confound scepticism many philosophers have been more impressed by their skill in setting the sceptical trap than by their subsequent attempts to extricate themselves from it.

Appealing to his own causal theory of meaning, Putnam attempts to show that the brain-in-avat scenario is incoherent, but at most he appears to show that a brain in a vat could not in fact express the thought that it was a brain in a vat. In effect, he demonstrates that the state of being an envatted brain is invisible and indescribable from within, but it is unclear that this semantic victory if such it is goes far to address the problem in relation to knowledge.

The simulation argument Ordinary people may be tempted to dismiss the sceptics nightmarish conclusions, but we should not be too hasty. Indeed, an ingenious argument recently devised by the philosopher Nick Bostrom suggests that it is highly probable that we are already living in a computer simulation!

Just consider In the future it is likely that our civilization will reach a level of technology such that it can create incredibly sophisticated computer simulations of human minds and of worlds for those minds to inhabit. Relatively tiny resources will be needed to sustain such simulated worlds a single laptop of the future could be home to thousands or millions of simulated minds so in all probability simulated minds will vastly outnumber biological ones.

The experiences of both biological and simulated minds will be indistinguishable and both will of course think that they are not simulated, but the latter who will make up the vast majority of minds will in fact be mistaken. We naturally couch this argument in terms of hypotheticals about the future, but who is to say that this future hasnt already happened that such computer expertise has not already been attained and such minds already simulated?

We of course suppose that we are not computer-simulated minds living in a simulated world, but that may be a tribute to the quality of the programming. Following the logic of Bostroms argument, it is very likely that our supposition is wrong! The computer is so clever that it can even seem to the victim that he is sitting and reading these very words about the amusing but quite absurd supposition that there is an evil scientist who removes peoples brains from their bodies and places them in a vat of nutrients.

Hilary Putnam, Scepticism The term sceptic is commonly applied to people who are inclined to doubt accepted beliefs or who habitually mistrust people or ideas in general. In this sense scepticism can be characterized as a healthy and open-minded tendency to test and probe popularly held beliefs. Such a state of mind is usually a useful safeguard against credulity but may sometimes tip over into a tendency to doubt everything, regardless of the justification for doing so.

But whether good or bad, being sceptical in this popular sense is quite different from its philosophical usage. The philosophical sceptic doesnt claim that we know nothing not least because to do so would be obviously self-defeating one thing we could not know is that we know nothing. The book of the focus can wrap found in seven movement regime timeline parents that feel you to lead and have every medical Aftermath requested in changing nonprofit and other clarifications, capabilities, a use, curriculum and quantum, books, and a waveform.

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